The inclination for many of us is to brush off hashtags as some sort of fad with very little real impact on the world around us. It’s simply a lazy person’s weak attempt at activism, what many have cynically called “slacktivism.” To be honest, I teeter between optimism and pessimism whenever I see a new hashtag campaign for a cause I am passionate about. I often wonder if I’m cheapening my commitment to the campaign by tweeting out the tag. Will it deter me from taking “real” action? Or, in contrast, is using the hashtag simply one way in which I am participating in the movement?
What we’ve seen in these three essays is that hashtag activism does have a role to play in drumming up concern and awareness of a political or cultural issue, particularly in an ever technologically centered society. Successful social and political actions have always needed to reflect the society in which they exist; they must enmesh themselves in the fabric of the current culture, or else risk irrelevancy. What would the Vietnam War protests have looked like had they not been draped in the music and artistic culture of the era? What sort of effect, if any, would the movement have had were it not a reflection of the times? Similarly, had protestors in Tahrir Square not utilized a contemporary cultural touchstone—i.e., social media—what sort of outcome would their protest have generated? How many supporters would the revolutionary movement have gained relying on international media alone to spread the word? It is in embracing “the times” and seeking cultural relevance that political and social movements become most effective.
This is where hashtag activism comes in today and where—with all the reservations we might have—we must acknowledge that is can be a powerful tool for political and social change, particularly those focused on human rights issues. While not everyone is on social media, it is hard to deny the bearing it has on our political discourse. Arguably, any organization or campaign not involved in social media will struggle to be relevant today.
Even if only a small portion of the global population is on Twitter, a well-run hashtag campaign can effect real change on a policy level. Take, for example, Invisible Children’s #KONY2012 campaign. While many might see this ultimately as a failure, as Kony still walks free, the movement did encourage the U.S. government to get involved. As a result of #KONY2012, a Senate Resolution was passed unanimously condemning Kony and calling on the Obama Administration to further efforts to capture the war criminal. Let’s just reflect on this for a moment ... a hashtag campaign persuaded an incredibly divided congress to unanimously pass a resolution. It’s difficult to deny that sort of influence.
What we must be careful to understand, and what has been highlighted within this roundtable, is that hashtags can stimulate change, but they are most effective when understood as one aspect of a broader campaign. A political action that relies on a hashtag as its entire change strategy might see a flare of global interest, but will lose potency in the long run. Going back to #KONY2012, had the organization not capitalized on the momentum gained online and translated that into rallies and in-person meetings with lawmakers, it is highly unlikely the resolution would have come to fruition. The key here is in understanding that hashtags are tools, not solutions.
In looking at #BringBackOurGirls, part of its struggle has been the failure of the international community to capitalize on the momentum and create strong policy campaigns based on the hashtag. Today, we sadly continue to see reports of more children being abducted while still awaiting the safe return of the original Chibok girls who were kidnapped in April. In reflecting on #BringBackOurGirls, this hashtag campaign serves as a prime example of the limits of hashtag activism while providing a glimpse at the tactic’s potential as a powerful way to raise awareness for a cause.